ALGER – The efforts of the international community during the year 2018 for the settlement of the Libyan crisis have made it possible to foresee a peaceful outcome through an inclusive political process, while security and economic challenges still remain to be met and require an increased mobilization of the different Libyan partes .
Indeed, members of the international community have multiplied the initiatives during the year 2018 to bring Libya out of a complex and multidimensional crisis. The steps taken, in this context, should allow in particular to lead to the organization of elections in spring 2019, the building of state structures, the unification of the ranks of the National Army and the dissolution militias and other armed groups, not to mention the start of the economic apparatus.
However, six years of international efforts, Libya has not yet managed to establish a central authority able to be the guarantor of stability and the only interlocutor vis-à-vis the international community. Two authorities are currently fighting for power.
This is the internationally recognized Government of National Unity (GNA) led by Fayez Sarraj, who sits in Tripoli, and the Tobruk parliament in the east, led by Aguila Salah Issa and supported by the Army commanded by Khalifa Haftar, but whose term has expired.
A situation that has not prevented the international community from launching several initiatives to bring together the Libyan parties, while neighboring countries and their European partners have organized two international conferences. The first took place in Paris on May 29th, while the second, organized by Italy, took place in Palermo on November 12th and 13th.
As part of the roadmap drawn by the UN Secretary-General's Special Representative, Ghassan Salamé, this long-awaited way of resolving the conflict revolves around the establishment of a constitutional framework. the organization of a double legislative and presidential election before the end of the first half of 2019.
The Imperative of a Consensus for Institutional Building
The challenge today is to build institutions capable of dealing with all the difficulties and guaranteeing the political and security stability of the Libyan state, had stressed the leaders of the countries on this occasion. neighbors and European partners.
The UN Secretary-General's Special Envoy, Ghassan Salamé, pledged to make progress in the process of resolving the Libyan crisis, notably by organizing a conference. Inclusive National Assembly bringing together all representatives of Libyan society before the end of the first quarter of 2019.
The UN Special Representative wanted to move forward and prepare the right conditions for the elections. From a diplomatic point of view, the international conferences on Libya, organized in Paris and Palermo, under the auspices of the United Nations, constituted, in the eyes of observers, a "decisive step" in the resolution of the Libyan conflict.
Bringing together key Libyan protagonists, including UN-backed presidential chairman of the GNA, Fayez Sarraj, Speaker of the House of Representatives, Aguila Saleh, Libyan National Army Commander Khalifa Hafter, and Khaled Mechri, President of the High Council of State, both stressed the need to find a solution to the Libyan crisis in the framework of "an inclusive internal dialogue away from foreign interference".
Hailed by the UN Security Council, these international diplomatic efforts are, however, hampered by several obstacles, including the resurgence of acts of violence, the most recent of which was the blast attack on the headquarters of the UN. Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tripoli.
Despite the actions of the Libyan National Army on the ground, to restore security in several regions and cities of the country, attacks and attacks on oil-rich sites have plunged the Libyans into 2018, provoking indignation and consternation.
Thus, the terrorist attack that targeted the headquarters of the High Electoral Commission in Tripoli in early May 2018, caused stir and disappointment among the international community, while deadly clashes between armed groups had not ceased in the capital.
In the south of the country, tensions between various groups and communities (Ouled Slimanes, Toubous, Tuaregs, Zwaï Arabs) causing several casualties still persist, accentuating the existing malaise in the country.
This insecurity is said to have benefited, it was regretted, to the various trafficking, including arms and migrants, making Libya a source of concern for neighboring and European countries. Considered as the second country through which migrants migrate to Europe after Turkey, Libya has become in recent years the hub of illegal immigration.
According to data from the International Organization for Migration (IOM), nearly 120,000 migrants arrived on the Italian coast in 2017 and 110,300 between January and May 2018, all from the Libyan coast crossing the Mediterranean Sea to their peril.